Tips & Tricks: These topics are very important from the ICT exam point of view.

1.    Explain MICR, OCR, OMR and RFID

MICR, OCR, OMR and RFID have been discussed in detail under ‘Input Devices’ chapter of ICT.  We will see some additional uses of OMR.

School Registers

We will see how paper-based systems are being used by some schools for registering students.  These paper based registers are then scanned into a computer using OMR.  The attendance records are then stored in central databases.

S S International
Term 2 Week 3 (2016)
Tutur Group 8BS
Monday Tuesday Wednesday Thursday Friday
Init am pm am pm am pm am pm am pm
AB
BC
CD
AK
DB
RC
KK
TC
DE
AW
AP

The database can be searched or sorted for the data about the attendance of any student.

Multiple Choice Question (MCQ) papers

Completed multiple-choice forms are scanned using OMR.  The forms have timing marks down one side – these timing marks pass under the first column sensor of the scanner.  These marks indicate the position of each question on the paper.  Using OMR software, a template is created to map out the X-Y co-ordinates of each lozenge.  As each MCQ is scanned, a light passes through the scanner which picks up the position of each lozenge which has been filled in by pencil/ink.  The position of the filled in lozenges is compared to the corresponding co-ordinates on the ‘answer sheet template’.  If the position matches to the X-Y co-ordinates,, then the answer is recorded as being correct. The scanned results are exported to a database or spreadsheet.

2.  How does Automatic Number Plate Recognition (ANPR) System works?

Automatic Number Plate Recognition (ANPR) systems are used to read the number plates on cars in a number of applications.

We will see how ANPR can be used in a car park for automatic entry and exit of cars.

Step 1

A sensor detects a vehicle and sends a signal to a microprocessor to instruct a camera to capture an image of the front of the vehicle (often an infrared camera is used to give a clearer image and for use at night).

Step 2

  1. An algorithm is used to locate and isolate the number plate from the image taken by the camera.  This algorithm also takes into account the size of the number plate and any damage or orientation ——————->   3ACD123
  2. The brightness and constrast of the number plate is first adjusted (this ensures that the characters can be clearly read). ————->    3ACD123
  3. Each character on the number plate is then segmented —->     3ACD123
  4. Each character is then recognised using optical character recognition (OCR) software.  The characters are converted into a string of editable text by the software.
  5. This text string is then stored in a database.

Step 3

Once all this has happened, the car park barrier is raised and the motorist is issued with a ticket.  The ticket shows the date and time of entering the car park.

Step 4

When the motorist returns to the car park, they insert their ticket into a machine which calculates the car park charges.  The payment is registered in the database.

The motorist then drives to the exit barrier and the ANPR system again reads the number plate and checks its database.  If the number plate is recognised (and payment has been made), the exit barrier is raised.

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