1. What is software to copyright?
    • Software is protected by copyright laws in the same way as CDs, films, DVDs and articles from magazines and books are protected.
    • When software is supplied on CDs or DVDs, there are certain rules that must be obeyed:
      • It is not legal to make software copies and sell it or give it away to a friend or colleague.
      • Software cannot be used on a network or used on multiple computers unless a licence has been acquired to allow this to happen.
      • It is not legal to use coding from the copyrighted software from your own software and then pass this or sell it as your own without permission of the copyright holder.
      • Renting out a software package without permission to do so is absolutely illegal.
      • It is illegal to use the name of the copyrighted software on another software, without agreement to do so.
  2. What is Software Piracy?
    • Illegal copies of software produced or developed is called as Software Piracy.
    • The number of ways in which a software can be protected from software piracy are as follows:
      • When software is being installed, the user will be asked to type in the unique reference number, which was supplied with the original copy of the software.
  3. What is a computer virus?
    • Virus is a program that replicates itself and is designed to cause harm to a computer system.
    • It often causes damage by attaching itself to files, leading to one or more of the following effects:
      • Causing the computer to ‘crash’ (to stop functioning normally), lock-up or stops responding to other softwares.
      • Loss of files:  Sometimes system files are lost, which leads to computer malfunctioning.
      • Corruption of data stored in files.
      • Viruses infect computers through e-mail attachments and through illegal software or downloading of files from the internet that are infected.
  4. How to protect a system from viruses?
    • The following are the ways to protect a system from viruses:
      • Use up-to-date antivirus software.  This detects viruses and then removes all quarantined (infected) files.
      • Do not allow illegal software to be loaded onto a computer and don’t use illegal compact disk (CD) or DVD coming from an unknown source.
      • Only download software and files from the internet only if they are from a reputable website.
      • Use firewalls on network to protect against viruses.
  5. What is Hacking?
    • Hacking is the act of gaining access to a computer system or network without legal authorisation; although hackers do this as a form of intellectual challenge, many do it with the sole intention of causing harm (for example, editing, deleting files, installing harmful software, executing files in a users directory or even creating a fraud).
  6. How to prevent hacking?
    • There are various ways in which we can prevent hacking:
      • Firewall
        • Firewalls provide a shield between your computer and the internet.  A firewall can block unwanted data from reaching your computer.  They can also stop your computer from connecting to unwanted websites.
      • User ID and Robust Password
        • A User ID is usually a word or a number that identifies a particular user as they logon to the computer system.
        • User IDs give people access to certain are or files within the computer.
        • Robust should be password (hard to guess). It should be made up of a combination of letters, numbers and special characters and must be changed regularly.
        • More robust password is even harder to guess for the hackers.
      • Data Encryption
        • Encryption makes the files on your system unreadable.  If the user does not know the password to un-encrypt the data, then, if someone tries to read an encrypted file, they will just see random junk instead of the real data.
  7. What is the effect of ICT on employment?
    • Effect of ICT on employment include:
      • Automation in factories (Robots doing the work of the people).
      • Increased need for highly trained ICT specialist.
      • Increase teleworking (work from home).
      • Decreased need for labour intensive workers (filing, printing, etc).
      • Decrease in face to face meeting as video conferences can be held over the internet (reduced travel time and cost).
      • Need for workers to be trained more frequently (to keep up with the changes in ICT).
      • Areas where jobs have been created:
        • ICT has brought new jobs to the world which include – Network Managers and Technicians.  These jobs have been created due to the need for big computer network within companies. Network Managers make sure that computers on the network run smoothly and are secure.
      • Web Designing
        • The internet has seen a huge demand for both commercial and personal websites.  Web designers create these sites and keep them upto date.
      • System Analyst
        • They are responsible for designing new systems and maintaining it.
      • Programmers
        • Create all the softwares that can be used on a computer.
        • This is a huge industry and produces things like:
          • Operating System
          • Application Sofware (Word, Excel, computer games, etc).
      • Engineers
        • Are needed to build the high tech computers that we use everyday.
  8. Describe the areas where jobs have been lost.
    • Unfortunately, ICT has also caused loss of jobs in certain areas:
      • Manual Repetitive Jobs
        • Factory manufacturing, spraying, wielding, packing and assembling have seen robots replacing humans.
        • Robots are replacing people because they can do the same job much faster, then can work 24 X 7 and they do not require wages.
      • Shop Work
        • Online stores such as Amazon has caused reduction in the number of shops found on our high streets.
        • More and more people are shopping online because they are generally cheaper and they can get goods delivered at their door steps.
      • Bank Cashiers
        • Use of ATMs have reduced needs of the bank cashier.
      • Office Work
        • Traditional office work such as typist have been replaced by computers.  One person who knows how to use a word processor and database does that work.
      • Telephone Exchange
        • Telephone operators have been replaced by computer systems that make telephone connections automatically.
      • Library Work
        • With the launch of E-Books, the future of traditional libraries could be at risk.  People can easily download ‘Electronic Books’ instead of visiting a library.
  9. What is the effect of Microprocessor controlled chip?
      • A microprocessor is a tiny CPU built onto a single chip.
      • Microprocessors are put into electronic devices to control how they function.
      • Microprocessor devices affect our lives in different ways.
        • Including our homes, our leisure time, how we interact socially, etc.
        • They even have an effect on our needs when we actually leave our homes.
        • Effect of microprocessor in our homes:
          • Any electronic device in our house that needs to be controlled in some way, is likely to contain a microprocessor.
            • Computer System:  A desktop (PC) or laptop will contain a microprocessor called CPU, which controls all the processing in the computer.
            • Washing Machine: A washing machine contains a microprocessor to control things like:
              • water temperature
              • valves to let water in
              • pumps to let water out, etc
            • Alarm system:  The microprocessor inside a burglar alarm to detect intruders and they also set the alarm on or off.  Some even contact the police for you automatically.
            • Heating system:  Uses microprocessor to control time when the heating is switched on or off, keeping a constant temperature.  Some can even make a temperature different from room to room.
            • Ovens or Fridges:  The microprocessor inside intelligent ovens can read the bar codes automatically and then automatically set the temperature and heating time.
            • Intelligent fridge can read the bar code on the food and determine the use-by (expiry) dates.  Food that is stale is automatically moved to the front of the fridge, so that it can be consumed first.
        • Effect of microprocessor on leisure time
          • Microprocessor controlled devices allow us to do the daily tasks (chorus) quicker.  This gives us more time for leisure.
          • For example, if you set the washing machine to wash and then dry our clothes, we can meanwhile read a book or watch a movie.
          • Other ways in which microprocessor can affect are:
            • Working on the move:
              • Laptops, PDAs, mobile phones, tablets, etc allows us to work on the move, which means we get to enjoy more free time.
              • For example, we could complete our work for the evening using a laptop in the train.  This means that we do not need to do it at home.
              • More time spent gaming
                • There has been a huge increase in the demand for gaming over the last twenty years.  More and more people spend large amount of free time playing the latest games.
              • Increased leisure time
                • Microprocessor in household appliances can make sure that the task is completed without you actually being there.
              • Lack of fitness
                • Because microprocessors controlled devices are doing maximum of our household work and office work for us, we do not do much of the manual work, hence there is loss of fitness.
                • Before we had washing machines, doing the laundry was a tough task, we had to wash them ourselves on the washing line.  Now, all we need to do is, put the clothes in the machine and press ‘start’.
              • Increased fitness
                • Because microprocessor controlled devices can reduce the amount of time to complete our everyday tasks, we are left with more free time to do the things we want.  Some people spend extra time in the gym getting fit.
        • Effect of microprocessor on social interaction
          • Microprocessor controlled devices like computers and mobile phones have made it easier to contact and stay in touch with family and friends.
          • For example, if we want to chat with a friend, we can either call or text them on a mobile, skype them, chat on MSN or even e-mail.
          • Mobile phones:  allows us in many ways to interact and chat with friends and family, these ways include – email facilities, text and SMS, accessing social networking sites and interacting their instant messaging.  Accessing chat rooms and chatting there.
          • Social Networking sites:  Social networking sites are growing more and more popular as a way to keep in contact with friends.
            • Facebook alone has 1 billion active users.  These sites have many ways in which you can interact including private messaging status updates, e-mails, etc.
          • VOIP service such as SKYPE
            • Skype is known as VOIP (Voice Over Internet Protocol) service which allows you to make very cheap phone calls over the internet.
            • Skype is useful if you want to talk to someone in another country as the prices are very cheap.
          • E-Mails
            • E-mails are quick and easy and allows us to send or receive messages no matter where we are in the world, at the click of a button.
    Positive Effects of microprocessor on social interaction Negative Effects of microprocessor on social interaction
    Easy to make new friends in a chat room. You do not actually meet people face to face.  This is known as Social Isolation
    Easy to find people with same interest or hobby. Interacting through computers does not require much physical activities and can lead to health problems such as obesity.
    Cheap internet phone calls through VOIP.
    Easy to spread.
    Old or disabled people can still interact without having to leave their homes.
      • Effect of microprocessor on the need to leave the home
        • ICT has progressed to a point  where it would be possible to never leave your home.  Many everyday tasks can be carried out from home using microprocessor controlled devices.
        • Online Shopping (E-Commerce)
          • Goods can be ordered over the internet and delivered to your doorstep.  Any device that allows you to connect to the internet can be used to shop online.  For example, Super market entertainment business (DVD, games, etc)
        • Teleworking (working from home)
          • Many people work from home and use ICT:
            • To perform tasks and contact their clients, colleagues, etc
            • Teleworking requires the following equipment:
              • Computer (laptop)
              • Internet connection
              • E-mail facility
              • Video Conferencing software
        • Entertainment
          • We can entertain ourselves very easily by using microprocessor devices and internet.  For example: Youtube, Gaming, social networking sites, chat rooms, downloading MP3, downloading and watching DVDs.
        • Online Banking
          • Banking can now be carried online.  We can perform the task without actually visiting the bank.  These tasks are like transferring money, paying bills, setting up new accounts and apply for loans.
        • Research
          • can be carried out using a computer with an internet connection.  We can find the following information online:
            • Bus, train timetable
            • Shop opening times
            • Movie show times
            • Information for school assignments, etc
  10. Write positive and negative effect of microprocessor for not having to leave home
    Positive Negative
    Elderly or disabled people can still carry out day-to-day tasks such as shopping and paying bills. You do not actually meet people face to face as much.  This is known as Social Isolation
    You can find entertaingment even if you do not go outside due to bad weather. Not leaving the house is bad for you.  For example: Lack of exercise
    You can carry out day to day task even if you are sick.
  11. What are the capabilities of ICT devices?
    • ICT devices and systems are capable of performing more tasks.  Some of these are:
      • Speed:  Computers perform tasks very fast.  Some CPUs can execute billions of instructions per second.
      • Accuracy:  If programmed properly, computers are capable of performing the task 100% accurately.
      • Multitasking:  Computers are able to perform many tasks at the same time.
      • Repetitive Task:  Computers will carry out repetitive tasks accurately.  Humans tend to get bored and make mistakes.
      • Networking:  Computers are connected together (by LAN, WAN, et) and this allows them to share resources such as printers as well as data.
      • Large data storage:  Computer databases can store large amounts of data.  It can store all the data including text, number, images, and videos.
      • Fast searches:  Computers can search for stored data extremely fast.  For example, the police can match fingerprints in a database in minutes rather than spend weeks in searching through printed copies.
      • Data Security:  Data can be secured by password and encryption.
  12. What are the limitations of ICT?
    • Following are the limitations of ICT:
      • Battery life:  Portable devices like laptops, PDAs and mobile phones are limited by their battery life.  These devices need to be charged by plugging them into the mains.
      • Weight:  Some portable devices are heavy weight (especially laptops).  This does not make them ideal for carrying around.
      • Screen and Keyboard size:  Smaller devices such as mobile phones and PDAs have very small screen and keyboards which can cause problems to some people.
      • Bandwidth:  Bandwidth is the speed that data can be transferred over the internet.  Low bandwidth means that large files will take a long time to be transferred.
  13. What are the internet developments?
    • Web 2.0
      • Is the term given to the second generation of internet.  The developments made on web 2.0 focus on giving people the ability to share information online.  Some of these developments are:
        • Blogs
          • A blog is an online journal where bloggers write about topics that are important to them (web blogs).
          • Blogs can be about anything that the bloggers want to share with other internet users.
          • Interesting blogs can attract millions of users and web-surfers.  Some popular blogs are:
            • Mashable
            • Engadget
            • Huffington Post
            • TMZ, etc
        • Wikis
          • Wikis are interactive web pages that can be viewed and edited by users.  Anyone with a web browser can visit a wiki and make changes to the content.
          • Advantages
            • Information is quickly added as many people collaborate their knowledge.
          • Disadvantages
            • Sometimes incorrect information is posted.
            • Information is not reliable
        • Digital media sharing websites
          • These sites help the users to upload images and videos that can be viewed by other people.
          • Video sharing websites are helping to change the ways in which, we can learn on the internet.  For example, Youtube has large amount of tutorial videos for all the topics.
          • One of the advantage is that the answers of the videos and images do not need to waste their hard disk space for storing data.  The files are held remotely on website servers.  The best known video sharing website is Youtube and for images is Flickr.
        • Social networking websites
          • These sites create communities of people who can share info about their interest and hobbies with each other.  They  also make it easy for people to make new friends and to keep in touch with each other no matter where they are in the world.
          • Common features of social networking websites are:
            • Status updates
            • Message board
            • Video Conferencing
            • Notification
            • Chat room
            • Games, etc
          • The best known social networking websites are:
            • Facebook
            • Twitter
            • Myspace
            • Instagram
  14. Discuss issues with information on the internet
    • Internet has many uses.  There are some issues that can cause some problems if we are not careful.  These issues are:
      • Unreliable information:
        • Just because something written on the internet does not necessarily make it true or correct.
        • Anyone can make a website and the information on these websites is never checked or verified.
        • Wikis allow anyone to change the information.  This means that sometimes what is written is completely incorrect.
        • Sometimes websites deliberately set out to fill their pages with incorrect information just to cause nuisance to people
        • For example:
  15. What are the ways to check that information on website is correct?
    • Use well known websites that you have heard.  For example:
      • BBC News
      • Yahoo News
      • Google News
    • Use official websites
    • Verify the information by checking it on different websites.  If each one says the same thing, you can be sure that it is correct.
    • Try and stay away from sites where anyone can post the information like Ask.com, Answer.com, Wikipedia.com, etc.
  16. Use websites that are updated regularly.  Fake websites are not usually kept up-to-date as much.

***This is the end of this guide. Hope you enjoyed it! Thanks for using www.igcsepro.org! We hope you will give us a chance to serve you again! Thank you!***