Reproduction in Plants
A process resulting in the production of genetically identical offspring from one parent
A process involving the fusion of the nuclei of two gametes to form a zygote and the production of offspring that are genetically different from its parents.
The table below shows the difference between asexual and sexual reproduction:
|Asexual Reproduction||Sexual Reproduction|
|Involves one parent||Involves two parents|
|Involves mitosis||Involves meiosis|
|Doesn’t involve fusion of gametes||involves fusion of gametes|
|Genetically identical organisms produced||Genetically different organisms produced|
Sexual Reproduction in flowering plants
In plants, sexual reproduction leads to the production of seeds that may be stored inside its fruit.
Sexual reproduction in flowering plants usually takes place in their flowers. The function of a flower is to make gametes. Usually, plants are a hermaphrodite, which means that they can produce both- male and female gametes.
The Structure of a Flower
|Parts of the flower||Function|
|Sepal||Protect the flower|
|Petal||Attract insects through bright colours|
|Nectary||Contains nectar that insects feed on|
|Filament||Anchors the anther|
|Anther||Contains the male gamete in pollen grains|
|Ovary||Contains the ovules|
|Ovule||Contains the female gamete|
Pollination is the transfer of pollen grains, from the male part of the plant (anther of stamen) to the female part of the plant (stigma)
Methods of pollination
- Insect pollination
- Wind pollination
Insect pollination: involves the medium of transfer of pollen as the insect.
- An insect such as a bee visits the flower
- It follows the guidelines towards the nectary
- And feeds on the nectar.
- Meanwhile, some pollen gets brushed on its body and remains there.
- When the insect visits another flower of the same plant or species, it is likely that some pollen sticks onto the carpel.
Wind pollination: involves the medium of transfer of pollen as the wind.
- The anther produces large amounts of pollen grains
- The wind may blow some of these pollen onto the carpel of another flower of the same species.
Types of pollination
- Self pollination
- Cross pollination
The transfer of pollen grains from the anther of a flower to the stigma of the same flower, or different flower of the same plant.
The transfer of pollen grains from the anther of a flower to the stigma of another flower of the same species
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